Passive scalar is a scalar quantity that is not actively involved in the flow physics of the CFD simulation. This is only ensured if the passive scalar sourcecan be considered as a fluid with contaminants/species present in low concentration, getting transported with the fluid flow, thereby having a negligible effect on the thermophysical properties of the fluid.
Hence, passive scalar sources can be used to model the propagation of species like smoke from a burning car in a garage, transport of oxygen within a water flow, or the diffusion of dust or pollutants in a tunnel. Another possible application of passive scalars is to model the mean age of a fluid, for example, air freshness analysis in a meeting room.
It is important to note that, scalar transport does not assume any physical dimensions for passive quantities.
To create a passive scalar source, first, add one or more Passive species to the simulation setup by going to your simulation project.
Under Initial Conditions, you should see a new entry Passive scalar. Keep its value at default Global 0.
Navigate to Model in the simulation tree to specify the turbulent Schmidt number and the diffusion coefficient for each passive scalar. Read more about them here.
In the simulation tree, navigate to Advanced Concepts and click on ‘+’ to add a Passive Scalar Source.
The setup looks as shown in figure 2:
The passive scalar source has to be assigned to a volume, defined through either a geometry primitive (cartesian box, sphere, and cylinder) or by directly assigning the CAD volumes.
Types of Passive Scalar Sources
Two types of passive scalar sources are currently supported:
Passive Scalar Source
This type of source is defined by a flux, which may be interpreted as a concentration per unit time. In other words, it is the rate of change of the passive scalar, given by \(1/s\). The user needs to specify the flux value and select the source region.
Volumetric Passive Scalar Source
This type of source is defined by a flux per unit volume. Consequently, the actual flux is implicitly computed using the volume of the source region assigned. The flux is specified in \(1/m^3s\) or \(1/in^3s\).
It is important to understand the correct interpretation of the units used for passive scalar sources. Since passive scalars do not affect the dynamics of fluid flow, units for passive scalars are independent to the unit system of simulation. Thus one can define a passive scalar flux as 100 \(1/s\) and interpret it as a flux of 100 \(g/s\) or 100 \(kg/s\) as per one’s convenience. However, these interpreted units must be kept consistent throughout the simulation setup (for values specified in initial conditions, boundary conditions etc). The scale of the results will directly correspond to the absolute value of input variables.
It is advised that readers practice the following tutorials in order to get a good grasp of the above concept:
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