The aim of this test case is to validate the following parameters of steadystate incompressible turbulent flow around the Ahmed Body with a prereferenced case [1]:
The geometry is uploaded on to the SimScale platform and meshed using the snappyHexMesh tool. A fine resolution is provided behind the Ahmed Body to detect wakes.
The geometry is created based on the simplified aerodynamic body used by Ahmed et al [1]. See Fig.1.a for dimensions and Fig.1.b for the geometry. The slant angle (ψ
$\psi $) is set to 25 degrees. The body is placed in a wind tunnel (6m×5m×13.5m
$6m\times 5m\times 13.5m$) in order to limit the aerodynamic blockage effect.
The snappyHexMesh tool was used to generate the mesh, with refinement near the walls and in the wake region (see Fig.2.).
A typical property of the generated mesh is the y+
${y}^{+}$(“yplus”) value, which is defined as the nondimensionalized distance to the wall; it is given by y+=u∗y/ν
${y}^{+}={u}^{\ast}y/\nu $. A y+
${y}^{+}$value of 1 would correspond to the upper limit of the laminar sublayer.
value is 1 or below.
.
An average y+
${y}^{+}$value of 1 was used for the inflation layer. The k−ω
$k\omega $SST turbulence model was chosen, with full resolution for nearwall treatment of the flow.
Tool Type: OPENFOAM®
Analysis Type: simpleFoam
Mesh and Element types:
Mesh type  Number of volumes  Type 

snappyHexMesh  38 million
$38\text{}million$

3D Hex 
Fluid:
Air with kinematic viscosity of 1.5×10−5kg/ms
$1.5\times {10}^{5}kg/ms$is assigned as the domain fluid. The boundary conditions for the simulation are shown in Table 3.
Boundary Conditions:
Parameter  Inlet  Top Face  Bottom Face  Lateral Faces  Outlet  Body 

Velocity  63.7 m/s
$63.7\text{}m/s$

Symmetry  63.7m/s
$63.7m/s$
(Moving Wall) 
Symmetry  Zero Gradient  Full Resolution 
k
$k$

21.9
$21.9$

Symmetry  Wall Function  Symmetry  Zero Gradient  Full Resolution 
Omega  29215
$29215$

Symmetry  Wall Function  Symmetry  Zero Gradient  Full Resolution 
Pressure  Zero Gradient  Symmetry  Wall Function  Symmetry  0 Pa  Full Resolution 
The free stream velocity of the simulation is U=63.7 m/s
$U=63.7\text{}m/s$, so that the Reynolds number based on the height of the body H
$H$is Re=1.2×106
$Re=1.2\times {10}^{6}$. It is of the same order of magnitude used in the original experiment of Ahmed and Ramm [1].
Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient is defined as
CD=Fd/0.5×rho×U2×Ax
$CD=Fd/0.5\times rho\times U2\times Ax$
where Ax(0.112 m2)
$Ax(0.112\text{}{m}^{2})$is the projected area of the Ahmed body in streamwise direction and FD the drag force. The timeaveraged drag force was determined by integration of surface pressure and shear stress over the entire Ahmed body. The resulting drag coefficient of the Ahmed body was computed to be 0.306
$0.306$which is within a 2.86%
$2.86\mathrm{\%}$error margin of the measured value of 0.298
$0.298$[1].
Wake Flow Patterns
The velocity streamline contour of mean flow obtained with the simulation is reported in Fig. 4 together with experimental results of reference [2].
[1]  (1, 2, 3, 4) S.R. Ahmed, G. Ramm, Some Salient Features of the TimeAveraged Ground Vehicle Wake, SAEPaper 840300, 1984 
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