The purpose of this numerical simulation is to validate the following performance parameters for incompressible flow through an industrial scale Butterfly Valve:
The numerical simulation were carried out using the ReynoldsAveraged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach with Turbulence modeling. The results of SimScale simulation runs were compared to the experimental results shown in [1]. The flow regime selected for the study has a Reynolds number in the order of Re=105
$Re={10}^{5}$.
Import validation project into workspace
The geometry of the study is a large scale discus shaped Butterfly valve (see Fig.1.). A brief description of the dimensions is provided by the table below.
Upstream Pipe Length  Downstream Pipe Length  Valve/Pipe Diameter  Valve maximum thickness  

Value [m]  8−12D
$812D$

15D
$15D$

1.8 m  0.36 m 
The domain is the internal region of the geometry with the domain extents same as the geometrical dimensions. Based on the flow physics and the geometry, a symmetry condition was applied to reduce the domain size and computational time. For the study a hexahedral mesh was created with the “Snappy Hex Mesh” on the SimScale platform (see Fig.2.). The Mesh was refined upstream, downstream and in the vicinity of the valve. Layer mesh was used on all wall regions for better accuracy. The details of the mesh are listed in the following table:
Mesh and Element types :
Mesh type  Number of cells  Type 

SnappyHexMesh  2.93.5 million  3D hexahedral 
The numerical analysis performed is detailed as follows:
Tool Type : OPENFOAM®
Analysis Type : InCompressible SteadyState
Turbulence Model : KOmega SST
Fluid:
) =10−6
$={10}^{6}$
Boundary Conditions:
For the inlet boundary, a turbulent fixed velocity condition was applied, while a pressure boundary condition was applied at the outlet. Noslip condition was applied for the walls. The following table provides the further details.
Boundary type  Velocity  Pressure 

Inlet  Turbulent Fixed Value: 3 ms−1
$3\text{}m{s}^{1}$

Zero Gradient 
Outlet  Zero Gradient  Fixed Value: 0 Pa
$0\text{}Pa$

Wall noslip  Fixed Value: 0.0 ms−1
$0.0\text{}m{s}^{1}$

Zero Gradient 
Symmetry  Symmetry  Symmetry 
The numerical simulation results for the various valve opening angles are compared with experimental data provided shown by Xue guan Song [1]. The formulations for the Flow coefficient (CV
${C}_{V}$) and Torque coefficient are taken as follows:
Flow coefficient:
CV=QΔP×Sg√
${C}_{V}=\frac{Q}{\sqrt{\mathrm{\Delta}P\times {S}_{g}}}$
and Torque coefficient:
CT=T(x)ΔP×d3
${C}_{T}=\frac{T(x)}{\mathrm{\Delta}P\times {d}^{3}}$
where, ΔP
$\mathrm{\Delta}P$is the difference between upstream and downstream pressure in units of psi, Q
$Q$is the flow rate in units of gpm, Sg
${S}_{g}$is the specific gravity i.e = 1 for water, T(x)
$T(x)$is the net torque about the xaxis and d
$d$is the diameter of the valve.
A comparison of the Flow coefficient obtained with SimScale and experimental results is given in Fig.3A and the figures Fig.3B shows the Torque coefficient comparison over the opening angle range of 20 to 85 degrees. For improved accuracy the pressure values were taken at 10D downstream and 8D upstream of the valve (upto approx 12D for higher angles).
The Velocity contours at different valve opening angles are shown in the figure Fig.4 below.
A visualization of the flow field by streamlines and the pressure distribution on the valve surface is shown by Fig.5.
Please Note: To avoid large data, the import project only contains results for angles 20, 50 and 85 degrees
[1]  Xue guan Song, Young Chul Park ; NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BUTTERFLY VALVEPREDICTION OF FLOW COEFFICIENT AND HYDRODYNAMIC TORQUE COEFFICIENT, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2007 WCECS 2007, October 2426, 2007, San Francisco, USA. 
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