Wind Loads on an Isolated Building


This project analyses the steady-state flow around an isolated building. The aim is to validate the flow around the building against experiments carried out at the Japan Wind Institute [1]. An atmospheric boundary layer profile is implemented at the inflow.

The numerical simulation results of SimScale were compared with the experimental results.

Import validation project into workspace


The geometry is a rectangular block which was created based on the physical setup.


Fig.1. Physical setup and atmospheric boundary condition [2].

Analysis type and Domain

The “Hex-dominant parametric (only CFD)” tool was used to mesh the domain. Different mesh refinements were applied to get a good quality mesh.

Tool Type : OPENFOAM®

Analysis Type : Incompressible Steady-state (Turbulent)

Mesh and Element types :

Table 1: Mesh Metrics
Mesh type Number of volumes Type
Hex-dominant parametric \(1.411 \times 10^7\) 3D hex

Simulation Setup


Air with kinematic viscosity of \(1.5 \times 10^{-5} kg/ms\) is assigned as the domain fluid. The boundary conditions for the simulation are shown in Table 2.

Boundary Conditions:

Table 2: Boundary Conditions for Isolated Building simulation
Parameter Top, Left and right Inlet Outlet Building and bottom walls
Velocity Slip wall From File Zero Gradient No-Slip wall
Pressure Slip wall Zero Gradient \(0.0\ Pa\) Zero Gradient
\(k\) Slip wall Same as Initial value Zero Gradient Wall Functions
omega Slip wall Same as Initial value Zero Gradient Wall Functions

The velocity at inlet is assigned through the file-upload option provided on the platform. The file corresponds to the velocity profile provided by experiments [1].


The numerical simulation results of longitudinal velocity at different planes are compared with experimental results provided in study [1].


Fig.2. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of longitudinal velocity [1].


Fig.3. Velocity streamlines imposed on pressure contours.


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