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Documentation

# How To Analyze the Pitch, Lift, and Drag Coefficients?

When you think of optimizing a design in an external aerodynamics simulation, the first thing you need to quantify is the drag of the body under test. For example, if you want to analyze an airplane or a car, we would mainly focus on the three dominant design parameters such as lift, drag, and the pitch moment. This article describes how to analyze the pitch, lift, and drag coefficients using the example of an airplane.

## Approach

This can be achieved in the SimScale Workbench by simply setting the result outputs as described below. Inside the simulation tree, go to Result control > Forces and moment coefficients. Figure 1: Example settings for lift, drag and pitch in SimScale. Make sure to use the orientation cube for defining lift drag and pitch entries.

A settings panel for Forces and moment coefficients will appear with parameters as shown in Figure1. The required parameters are discussed below:

## Center of Rotation

The Center of rotation is commonly defined as the center of mass of the structure. In some simulation projects, it may be convenient to define different coordinates for the center of rotation while others can be tricky.

### Lift and Drag Direction

You need to assign those according to your coordinate system. Like the picture above demonstrates, drag pulls the aircraft back. In our example, drag is in the positive x-direction. This is why we need to set the value for Drag direction dx to 1. Accordingly, looking at the Lift direction, dy is set to 1 and the Pitch axis corresponds to the z-axis in this case.

### Freestream Velocity

Freestream velocity is the velocity of your airplane or vehicle in most cases. For simulation purposes, you can choose the inlet velocity here.

### Reference Length and Area

We need the Reference length, to analyze the pitch coefficient. It is important to take the same value for all your calculations in order to be able to compare them. For this example, it is the wingspan.

The Reference area is important for calculating the lift and drag coefficients. Depending on the industry and the application, different areas are commonly used. One possibility is to use the frontal area which is often used as the reference area for calculating the drag coefficient. However, one can also use the wing area as the reference area, which is often used if one is rather interested in the lift coefficient. Make sure to use the same value for all your calculations.

Note

Note that both reference length and area can change for specific cases, so we recommend finding it out for your specific application.

### Pick Faces

Pick the faces for which you want to analyze the coefficients. You can do this for specific parts such as wings or tail only or the whole assembly.

Note

If none of the above suggestions solved your problem, please post the issue on our forum or contact us.

Last updated: January 2nd, 2021