\underline{\textbf{Status}}

Not started yet.

\underline{\textbf{Description & Overview}}

**Information:** The CAD models will not be provided and have to be modeled!

Wind Load Calculation is an overview of the force that blowing wind exerts on a tall object. A number of factors that influence the actual wind load on a real building, include the surrounding terrain, nearby structures, trees, and typical weather patterns for the area. Comparing wind load calculations are most complicated . Calculations try to account for as many of these external factors as possible, to the point where the wind load section in American Society for Civil Engineer’s ASCE 7 standard, spans five chapters and over 100 pages.

\underline{\textbf{Input Data}}

Fig.1 Wind load calculation example structures

- A 10’ tall, 10’ wide cylinder.
- A cube with the same volume as cylinder A, oriented with a face normal (90°) to the wind direction.
- Another cube with the same volume, but rotated 45° for a slightly more aerodynamic front.

**Wind load equations are also given (see sources):**

F = wind load (in N or lbf)

P = wind pressure (in Pa or psf)

A = projected area (in m^2 or ft^2)

C_d = drag coefficient (unitless)

V = wind speed

K_z = exposure coefficient

G = gust response factor

z = height of the midpoint of the object above the ground

h = height of the top of the object above the ground

q_z = velocity pressure

G = gust effect factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.9)

C_f = force coefficient (as defined in ASCE 7 §29.5)

K_z = velocity pressure coefficient (as defined in ASCE 7 §29.3.1)

K_zt = topographic factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.8.2)

K_d = wind directionality factor (as defined in ASCE 7 §26.5)

\underline{\textbf{Purpose}}

The purpose of this project is to validate the results given in the pictures below and to use the formulas given in the sources. The calculation methods shown can offer a very accurate simulation of the ultimate wind load on a structure, but they do not offer a complete picture. They cannot indicate where wind load might be concentrated on a complex structure, nor simulate the resulting stresses and deflection of the structure. For a more complete understanding of how a structure will react to high wind loads, an engineer can use **Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)** and **Finite Element Analysis (FEA)** programs to simulate the interaction of the wind and structure as a whole.

\underline{\textbf{Pictures of some results}}

Fig.2 Wind load calculation factors for three different structures

Fig.3 Three wind load calculation methods for three different structures

Fig.4 Static pressure on three different objects in a 110 mph wind

\underline{\textbf{Key Words}}

Computational fluid dynamics, CFD, Mathematical models, Wind Load, ASCE 7, Building Load, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

\underline{\textbf{Literature & Sources}}