Thanks for the help, @jousefm!
Some of the changes you made are definitely improvements over what I was working with. I can't use the end result, however. The simulation did not produce enough frames (did not write enough timesteps?) to observe the flow, the end goal of my efforts. The contour filter is necessary to see the difference between air and water, but the filter does not provide useful results unless it is present from frame 0, tracking the largest surfaces of water. I suspect this is due to splashing, etc. Also, from what I could see, the initial conditions of the phase fraction were changed from all air to all water, which invalidates the simulation.
Looking at the simulation run event log, the "the Courant number (CFL) exceeded the limit of 1" warning appeared in your run as well, in much the same way as it has been appearing for me. However, for your run, the computer did not automatically reduce the timestep as it did with mine after implementing what seemed to work of your changes.
"deltaT = 9.04455561736e-18
Time = 0.02919830365346554
deltaT = 8.93966762496e-18
Time = 0.02919830365346555
deltaT = 8.83621746158e-18
--> FOAM Warning :
From function Time::operator++()
in file db/Time/Time.C at line 1055
Increased the timePrecision from 12 to 13 to distinguish between timeNames at time 0.0291983036535
Time = 0.02919830365347"
Incredibly small timesteps like these are, I think, what are slowing the simulation down.
I appreciate the help with this frustrating problem. Thanks again for assisting me with it.