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Wind Loads on an Isolated Building


This project analyses the steady-state flow around an isolated building. The aim is to validate the flow around the building against experiments carried out at the Japan Wind Institute [1]. An atmospheric boundary layer profile is implemented at the inflow.

The numerical simulation results of SimScale were compared with the experimental results.


The geometry is a rectangular block which was created based on the physical setup.

Fig.1. Physical setup and atmospheric boundary condition [2].

Analysis type and Domain

The “Hex-dominant parametric (only CFD)” tool was used to mesh the domain. Different mesh refinements were applied to get a good quality mesh.

Tool Type : OPENFOAM®

Analysis Type : Incompressible Steady-state (Turbulent)

Mesh and Element types :

Mesh typeNumber of volumesType
Hex-dominant parametric1.411×107




3D hex

Simulation Setup


Air with kinematic viscosity of 1.5×105kg/ms


 is assigned as the domain fluid. The boundary conditions for the simulation are shown in Table 2.

Boundary Conditions:

ParameterTop, Left and rightInletOutletBuilding and bottom walls
VelocitySlip wallFrom FileZero GradientNo-Slip wall
PressureSlip wallZero Gradient0.0 Pa


0.0 Pa


Zero Gradient




Slip wallSame as Initial valueZero GradientWall Functions
omegaSlip wallSame as Initial valueZero GradientWall Functions

The velocity at inlet is assigned through the file-upload option provided on the platform. The file corresponds to the velocity profile provided by experiments [1].


The numerical simulation results of longitudinal velocity at different planes are compared with experimental results provided in study [1].

Fig.2. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of longitudinal velocity [1].
Fig.3. Velocity streamlines imposed on pressure contours.


[2]Cooperative project for CFD prediction of pedestrian wind environment in then Architectural Institute of Japan


This offering is not approved or endorsed by OpenCFD Limited, producer and distributor of the OpenFOAM software and owner of the OPENFOAM® and OpenCFD® trade marks. OPENFOAM® is a registered trade mark of OpenCFD Limited, producer and distributor of the OpenFOAM software.

Last updated: January 8th, 2021

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